I. Do you know these?
v 1.(Even) Homer sometimes nods.
v 2.Achilles' heel
v 3.Apple of Discord
v 1. Even the most skilled and trustworthy people do not always produce work of the highest quality.
v 2.the fatal weak point
v 3.the origin of disagreement
v Peleus（[希神]珀琉斯） & Thetis（[希神]西蒂斯(海神Nereus的女儿), a sea nymph
v Thetis wanted to make her son invincible by dipping him into the Styx（(环绕地狱的河)冥河）
v But she neglected Achilles’ heel by which she held him
v Killed by Paris
Story of the Golden Apple
v The wedding ceremony of Thetis & Peleus
v The goddes of discord, Eris（厄里斯(不和女神)）, was not invited, hence, angry
v Golden apple: to the most beautiful woman
v Hera, Athena, Aphrodite （阿芙罗狄蒂(爱与美的女神)）
v Paris, prince of Troy
v Hellen, wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta（梅内莱厄斯：特洛伊战争期间的斯巴达王）
v The Trojan War
v II. Historical development of Ancient Greece
1. The Aegean（爱琴海） culture (-20 C.－-7C.)
è Cretan Civilization (-20C-13C): the Minoans（(古希腊)克里特文明）; linear writing; Non- Indo-European language
è Mycenaean Civilization (-12C) （迈锡尼文明）: the Akhaians, real ancestors of Greeks; Indo-European language
è The Trojan War (-1200 -1170 B.C. ): Troy & alliance of Greek states
è The Dorians（多里安人） from the north of mainland Greece, still babarian tribes, occupied most of the Peloponnesus
2. Dark Age (-11C— -8C)
è Period 1050-750 poorly known, called Dark Ages when there were few historical records left.
è Kings ruled non-urban Greek communities during Dark Ages
è At end of the period aristocracy（贵族政治） began to throw out kings, take over management of the community (来源：EnglishCN英语问答中心[e问e答])
è In the late Dark Ages the Greeks began to form urban centers around a citadel (fortress). These centers are called poleis (singular polis). They were well established by the eighth century
è The polis (city state) （城邦） is the characteristic Greek political institution of the Classical period
3. Archaic Period (-8— -7C)
è poverty of the land & overpopulation
è A huge period of migration from about 750- 550
è The basic procedure:
è A city → colonists → an independent new settlement overseas
è Sometimes the new city would maintain ties with the metropolis (lit. mother city), though sometimes colonies would become antagonistic to the metropolis. Most colonies were on the coast and generally only took over the immediate area, the interior being left to the locals.
4. Classical Greece (-6-4C)
è A splendid Greek urban civilization. By Greek culture, we mainly refer to the culture of classical Greece (that started around -800), especially of Athens.
è Classical Greece is the source from which many of the characteristic elements of Western culture derive, and therefore it makes sense to examine this culture.
5. Hellenistic Period (-334-30)
è Athens & two wars
è Persian War (-5C)→ The Delian（得洛斯人） League→Athens Empire
è The Peloponnesian（（希腊南部）伯罗奔尼撒半岛的） War (-430-404),ending in the victory of Sparta
è Alexander, king of Macedon（马其顿王国）, conquered Greece
è The period of the kingdoms set up by Alexander's successors: the Seleucids (in Asia), Ptolemies (in Africa), Antigonids (in Europe).
è Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Her death marked the ending of the Hellenistic Period.
è From then on, the history entered a period of Roman Empire.
III .Greek Culture
1.Social $ political structure: 3 ★ ★ ★
v The word "democracy" means "rule by the People."
v In Athens the People in their assembly had full and direct control over all policies of the state, and through the jury panels had direct control of the justice system. All magistrates（文职官员, 地方官员） were directly accountable to the People, and had judgment passed on their activities when they left office. Unsuccessful generals could be (and at times were) tried for incompetence.
v Yet citizenship was restricted to adult male citizens only. Women, children, foreigners and slaves were excluded
2. Homeric Epics: 3 ★ ★
v The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, which retells in a continuous narrative（叙述性的） the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. The Iliad《伊利亚特》(古希腊描写特洛伊战争的英雄史诗, 相传为荷马所作), Odyssey《奥德赛》 are two examples of the epic genre.
v Homer is believed to live around -700, but his works deal with great men and wars of the period of 1200-1100.
v The Iliad: about the war between Troy and the allied army of Greek states (-1200-1170).
v Paris’ abduction(诱导) of Hellen, wife of Menelaus, king of Sparta
v Agamemnon(阿伽门农, 特洛伊战争中希腊军队的统帅), Menelaus’ (斯巴达王) brother, acted as the commander-in-chief of the alliance of Greek states
v Achilles captured Briseis and kept her as a concubine, but Agamemnon took her away.
v Achilles was raged, and refused to fight
v Hector(赫克托,荷马史诗《伊利亚特》中的一勇士名), Paris’ brother, killed Petroclus, Achilles’ best friend, probably his male lover.
v Achilles killed Hector
v Destruction of Troy
v Achilles is one of the only two people described as "god-like" in the Iliad. This does not just refer to his supreme fighting ability, but also to his attitude. He shows a complete and total devotion to the excellence of his craft and, like a god, has almost no regard for life. Clearly he does not mind a swift death, so long as it is glorious
v Achilles’ rage was an early representation of western individualism.
v Cf. Chinese ideal personality
3. Lyric poetry抒情诗: 13 ★
v Lyrics are the written words in a song. For the Greeks a lyric is a song sung with a lyre.
v Now, it is commonly used to mean a song or a poem of no defined length or structure that expresses a subjective, personal point of view.
v Two main lyric poets in ancient Greece: Sappho(萨福：希腊抒情诗人，虽然她的抒情浪漫诗只保存下一些片段，她仍被认为是古代最伟大的诗人之一) & Pindar(品达：希腊田园诗诗人，尤以其颂歌集 而著称)
v Sappho was famous for her passionate intensity; while Pindar for his odes celebrating the victories at athletic games.
4.Drama: tragedy & comedy
Origin of tragedy: ★ ★ ★
v Its roots can be traced back to the dithyrambs, the chants and dances honoring the Greek god Dionysus. These drunken, ecstatic(心醉神迷的) performances were said to be created by the satyrs half-goat beings who surrounded Dionysus in his revelry. In this sense, the appearance of tragedy has to do with Greek religious beliefs.
P.S.:satyrs(半人半兽的森林之神, 好色之徒, 性欲极强的男人)
v tragos→goat; aeidein→to sing
v Now it refers to any story with a sad ending or a story that fits a set of requirements (often
v Son of Zeus & Semele[希神]塞默勒(Cadmus之女)
v Hera’s jealousy→ Hera plotted against Semele and caused her to be burnt to a crisp by the sight of Zeus’ glory.
v Zeus did manage to rescue Dionysus and stitched him into his thigh to hold him until he was ready to be born. His birth from Zeus alone conferred immortality upon him.
v Hera was still jealous and arranged for the Titans to kill Dionysus(狄俄尼索斯-酒神). The Titans(提坦, 太阳神) ripped him into pieces. However, Rhea brought him back to life.
v While other gods had temples the followers of Dionysus worshipped him in the woods. Here they might go into mad states where they would rip apart and eat raw any animal they came upon.
v Dionysus wandered the world actively encouraging his cult. He was accompanied by the Maenads(参加狄俄尼索斯酒神节狂欢的女人), wild women, and flush with wine.
Dionysus in Greek everyday life ★ ★ ★
v i. Dionysus became one of the most important gods in everyday life. He became associated with several key concepts. One was rebirth after death. Here his dismemberment by the Titans and return to life is symbolically echoed in tending vines, where the vines must be pruned back sharply, and then become dormant in winter for them to bear fruit. The other is the idea that under the influence of wine, one could feel possessed by a greater power.
v ii. Dionysus & theater
v The festival for Dionysus is in the spring when the leaves begin to reappear on the vine. It became one of the most important events of the year. Its focus became the theater. Watching the tragedies here became an important way for the Greeks to receive education
Three playwrights（剧作家） of tragedy: 14-8 ★
v Aeschylus (-525-456): Prometheus Bound; Agamemnon希腊的悲剧诗人埃斯库罗斯
v Sophocles (-496-406): Oedipus the King
v Euripides (-484-406): more concerned with conflicts in society, hence, with “problem plays” 欧里庇得斯(希腊的悲剧诗人)
The idea of fate in Greek tragedies:
v Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound:
v Two reasons for Zeus’ hatred for Prometheus:
v 1. Prometheus stole fire and gave it to humankind
v 2. Prometheus refused to reveal the secret concerning Zeus’ fate
Theogony (by Hesiod（赫西奥德(公元前8世纪,希腊诗人)):
v Chaos →Gaea →Uranus /Gaea →the Cyclopes & Hecatonchires & Titans
v Uranus imprisoned the Cyclopes &Hecatonchires
v Gaea(盖亚-大地女神)/Cronus(克罗诺斯--巨人Titans 之一) plotted against Uranus and overthrew him
v Cronus(克罗诺斯--巨人Titans 之一)/Rhea →Zeus, Poseidon(波塞冬-海神), Hades(阎王), Hestia, Demeter
v To avoid his father’s fate, Cronus swallowed all his children except Zeus, who was saved by Rhea
v Zeus overthrew Cronus, and by drawing lot became the supreme god on the Olympus
v The oracle, which only Prometheus, said if Zeus would have a more powerful son who overthrow him if he married a certain goddes
v Prometheus(普罗米修斯-造福于人类的神) finally revealed the secret: the goddes is Thetis(西蒂斯-海神Nereus的女儿)
v →In this case, even Zeus, the supreme god, could do nothing in face of fate
Oedipus the King ★ ★ ★俄狄浦斯(底比斯王子, 曾破解怪物斯芬克斯(Sphinx)的谜语, 后误杀其父并娶其母为妻, 发觉后自刺双目, 流浪而死)
v Laius, the king of Thebes & Jocasta, the queen
v The Delphi oracle:
v They will have a son who is to kill his father and marry his mother
v The newly born baby was brought to the hillside, but saved by the king from Corinth
v Oedipus grew up, and when learning about the oracle, he left Corinth
v On the way to Thebes, he ran into conflict with an old man and killed him, who turned out to be Laius
v The Sphinx and its question
v Oedipus answered it, and drove the monster to killed itself
v Oedipus became the king of Thebes and married Jocasta according to the notice of the state
v Disasters befell on Thebes
v The seer’s revelation of truth
v Oedipus stabbed out his own eyes and exiled himself
v The Oedipus complex in Sigmund Freud’s theory:
v The childhood desire to sleep with the mother and to kill the father