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Lecture 2
1. History of Rome: 38-9
I. the founding of Rome
1  Aeneas
n Hero in Virgil’s epic: Aeneid (cf. p.44) (埃涅伊德, Virgil 作的叙事诗)
维吉尔:罗马诗人。他最伟大的史诗埃涅阿斯纪 讲述了埃涅阿斯在特洛伊陷落后的流浪经历
n son of Anchises and Venus & cousin of King Priam of Troy & leader of Troy's allies during the Trojan War (1200-1170 B.C.).
n After the fall of Troy, he led a band of Trojan refugees to Italy and became the founder of Roman culture (but the city he founded is Lavinium, not the city of Rome itself).
2  Numitor & Amulius : Aeneas’ offspring
n Numitor, king of the ancient Italian city of Alba Longa, was deposed by his brother Amulius
n Numitor's daughter, Rhea Silvia, gave birth to twin sons
n  Amulius, fearing that the boys would grow up to overthrow him, had them placed in a trough and thrown into the River Tiber. 
3 Romulus & Remus: a
n Luckily the trough came ashore.
n They were found by a she-wolf.
n  Instead of killing them, the she-wolf looked after them and fed them with her milk.
n The twins were found by Faustulus, the king's shepherd(牧羊人), who adopted them, calling them Romulus and Remus.
n Romulus and Remus rose against Amulius, killed him and restored the kingdom to Numitor, their grandfather.
Romulus & Remus: b
n Deciding to found a town of their own, Romulus and Remus chose the place where the she-wolf had nursed them.
n Romulus began to build walls on the Palatine Hill, but Remus jeered at them because they were so low. He leaped over them to prove this, and Romulus in anger killed him.
n Romulus continued the building of the new city, naming it Roma (Rome) after his own name.
n The she-wolf, of course, was a sacred symbol of Rome. See a picture of the she-wolf: (来源:英语论坛 http://bbs.englishcn.com)
Romulus & Rome
n Its first citizens were outlaws and fugitives, to whom Romulus gave the settlement on the Capitoline Hill.
n →Problem: no enough wives for all these men
n Romulus decided to steal women from the Sabines(萨宾人), an Italian tribe.
P.S.:萨宾人(古代意大利中部一民族,公元前3世纪被罗马征服),
n He there proclaimed a festival and invited many Sabines to it. While the attention of the men was elsewhere Romulus' men rushed in and carried off the women.
n This was the famous "Rape (carrying off) of the Sabine women", which later became a subject for painters.
A word on the Roman legend:
n It seems unlikely that any part of this legend is true. Almost certainly it is a copy of a Greek tale, invented to explain the name of Rome and certain customs.
n For instance Roman brides were taken from their families on their wedding days with a pretence of force, and this probably accounts for the story of the Sabine women.
n But it is a widely believed that Rome was founded around the end of -8 C. under the influence of the Etruscans(伊特鲁里亚人.)
History of Rome: 38-9
 II. Three eras of Rome
n . Roman Kingdom (circa -753--510 B.C.)
n Rome was ruled by seven Kings.
n The population was divided into three tribes (each tribe=10 curie库里亚/胞族  =100 gens氏族  )
Political constitution
n →The earlier Roman form of government was therefore an elective constitutional monarchy, and the powers were shared by the King, the Senate (or Council of the Elders) and a thirty member body known as the “Comitia Curatie”库里亚大会
n The king was the head of the state, a non hereditary(世袭的),authority, elected by the curie and chosen from a list of candidates presented by the Senate.
n All the state laws had to be approved by the citizens. Convened by the King, the curie met to vote, and they could answer yes or no to the king's proposals
ii. Roman Republic (509-27 B.C.)
n In 509 the last king was expelled and a Republic was set up.
a. Magistrates(地方行政官)
n The Romans took the power of the kings (called imperium) and gave it to two annual magistrates called consuls.
b. The Senate
n The senate was a holdover from the council of the kings. Eventually it consisted only of ex-magistrates. The senate had no right to give orders, but since it was composed of the most important men in politics, it was hard for magistrates to disregard its advice, and its influence was great. In the later Republic the senate acquired control over the state treasury and power to appoint officials.
c.Assembly
n Theoretically, the Roman People, when convened in various assemblies, had complete power. They elected all magistrates, tried criminal accusations, passed all laws and voted on war. In practice the arrangements gave control of the assemblies to the wealthy:
n The assemblies could only vote yes or no to a proposal put to them by a competent magistrate. They had no powers of independent deliberation (unlike the assembly of a Greek democracy).
 
Patron/Client Relations:
A characteristic institution of the Roman
n The Roman population was divided into two groups: patricians(贵族)and plebeians. (平民, 庶民)
n The two classes were quite divided: the patricians married and did business only with the people of their class. The plebeians could narrow the gap between the two classes only in one way: by becoming clients (obedient servants of a patrician family. They offered their services and so received the protection of the head of the patrician family, who became their patron.
n While Greek cities were rent with strife between the poor and the wealthy, the Roman patron/client system was a means of joining poor and wealthy in common interest. In effect, it was more beneficial for a given poor person to keep his patron in a position of influence than it was to abolish such influence altogether.
n The Romans applied this system to their foreign affairs. Conquered communities became the clients of their conquerors (and his family) and could also seek new patrons among the ruling class. This gave even the conquered an interest in promoting the Roman state.
Nature Of The Roman Republic
The structure of the Roman government and the influence of the patron/client relationship meant that the Roman Republic was dominated by the wealthy and that the theoretically democratic element was very restricted. The Roman Republic was not a democracy but an elective oligarchy(寡头政治, 寡头政治的执政团)of the wealthy (basically meaning landowners).
P.S.: 寡头统治政府:指由一些,特别是少数几个人或家族组成的小集团统治的政府
Struggle Of The Orders
(struggle between the patricians and plebeians )
n Aims of Plebeians(平民, 庶民) :
n Access to the priesthoods and offices of the state (especially the consulship) & debt relief and the distribution of state land.
Methods and Institutions of Plebeians :
 
n Secession: to withdraw from the city until they got their way;
n Assemblies;
n Tribunes(古罗马)护民官
n The consequence of the Conflict of the Orders:
n  By 287 The tribunes came to be recognized as state magistrates. The wealthy plebeians were allowed to seek office, yet they gave up the struggle for the poorer plebeians' economic grievances. The wealthy plebeians united with the ruling patricians to form a new political ruling class called the nobility(贵族阶级) This new nobility was to lead the Republic in its conquest of the Mediterranean.
P.S.: 贵族阶级:由高贵的出身或等级区分的一个阶级的人,在英国包括公爵和公爵夫人、侯爵和候爵夫人、伯爵和伯爵夫人、子爵和子爵夫人、男爵和田爵夫人:
iii. the Era of the Empire  (-27-476-1453 AD)
n In 44 B.C., Julius Caesar(凯撒)was assassinated by several members of the Roman Senate just one month after he had declared himself dictator of the Roman world.
P.S.:凯撒(古罗马的将军,政治家,历史家,公元前100-44)
n  → a new triumvirate (古罗马,三头政治), consisting of Antony(安东尼)(consul), Lepidus (high official), and Octavian(屋大维)(the grand nephew of Caesar then divided up the Roman world.
n  After defeating his last rival Antony, Octavian gained complete control of the Roman world. To avoid the fate of Caesar, he claimed to restore the Republic and was given the title of Augustus (27 B.C.) In reality his control of the armies, vast wealth and various special powers that had been voted to him gave him a position like that of a king.
n This is the beginning of Roman Empire, where the power was centralized in one person, the Emperor.
Pax Romana:39 ★ ★ ★罗马帝国统治下的和平
n Pax Romana, Latin for "the Roman peace," is the long period of peace experienced by states within the Roman Empire. During this time Rome endured neither major civil wars, nor serious invasions. It was an era of relative tranquility, though, for Rome still fought a number of wars against neighboring states and tribes.
n This period is generally considered to have lasted from 29 B.C., when Augustus Caesar declared an end to the great Roman civil wars of the first century, until 180 AD, when emperor Marcus Aurelius died. It was a time in which Roman commerce thrived, unhampered by pirates or marauding(抢劫的)enemy troops.
Roman law: 39 ★ ★ ★罗马法:作为现代罗马法律基础的古罗马的法制体系
n Roman law is a very important contribution made by the Romans. It had been so well developed that it later became the core of modern civil and commercial law in many Western countries, including most countries of Europe and South America.
n Cf. Chinese law
n Emphasis on relations/connections
1. History of Rome: 39
III. The declining of Roman Empire
n The empire began to decline in the 3rd century.
n It was unable to counter the huge Germanic invasions, and it gradually lost control of territory.
n In 395 the Empire was divided into East (the Byzantine Empire) and West.
n In 476 the last emperor in the West was deposed by the Goths, which marked the end of the West Roman Empire.
n It should also be remembered that as a whole the empire did not fall. For Imperial government continued in the increasingly Greek eastern half. Here a "King of the Romans" continued to rule down to AD 1453 when Constantinople(君士坦丁堡--土耳其西北部港市伊斯坦布尔) was captured by the Turks (though of course a Latin speaking westerner would not recognize the east as being Roman).
2. Greeks and Romans:
cultural similarities and differences
The Romans were ready to learn from other cultures, esp. Greek culture. To a large degree, it was the Romans who brought Greek (and Hellenistic) culture to world attention
I. Some similarities between the Greeks and Romans: 38 ★ ★ ★
i. Language:
n Greek and Latin work in a similar way, for they both belong to the Into-European family.
ii. political ideas:
n The citizen-assembly plays an important role in both political life.
iii. Artistic styles:
n The Romans recognized the richness of Greek art and architecture, and they sought to emulate(仿效)the Greek masters -- and the Greek styles and themes -- in their own art.
vi. religious beliefs:
n As the Greeks, the Romans believed in many gods. Also for them a different god looked after a different part of life.
n Some examples:
n Jupiter - King of the gods >Zeus
朱庇特:统治诸神主宰一切的主神,古罗马的保护神,朱诺的弟弟和丈夫也作 Jove
n Juno - Jupiter's wife, goddess of women > Hera
朱诺:罗马万神庙里最主要的女神,朱庇特的妻子亦是其姐姐,主司婚姻和妇女的安康
n Mars - the god of war >Ares
 战神
n Minerva - the goddess of wisdom > Athena
密涅瓦:掌管智慧、发明、艺术和武艺的女神,智慧和技术及工艺之神
n Neptune - the god of the sea >Poseidon
尼普顿:海神
n Diana - the goddess of the moon and hunting > Artemes
黛安娜(罗马神话中之处女性守护神,狩猎女神和月亮女神,相当于希腊神话中的Artemis),
n Mercury - the messenger of the gods >Hermes
墨丘利神:各路神灵的使者,其本身是商业、旅行及盗窃的守护神
n Venus - the goddess of love and beauty >Aphrodite
维纳斯:性爱和形体美的女神
n Mithras - the sun god. >Appolo
蜜特拉神(波斯神话中的光明之神)
n Bacchus >Dionysus
巴克斯, 酒神
II. Some differences between the Greeks and the Romans ★ ★ ★
i. the biggest difference:38
n The Romans built up a vast empire, while the Greeks didn’t. But why?
n Polis城邦vs cosmopolitanism世界主义:
n With their tunnel vision in place, the Greeks had thought of the world of the city-state. The Romans came to think of the entire world as a city in which everyman might enjoy privileges of citizenship. They looked forward to a world composed of the most diverse elements and people. The Empire would be synonymous with the world.
n Self-interest vs duty:
n The Romans did not see their public and private roles as necessarily conflicting with one another. The height of one's wisdom was to know one's duty and then to do it, and not to pursue self-interest. In this sense, the Romans were natural Stoics.
n Chaos(无秩序)vs order:
n The organizational power, their military and administrative capabilities also contributed to the Empire. In general, the Romans were optimistic about life whereas the Greeks were not. The Greeks saw chaos in the world. The Romans experienced that same chaos but held out for the possibility of bringing order out of that chaos. The Romans managed to translate their thought (i.e. their optimism and faith in man's ability to cope with the existence of chaos) into actions. The proof is, quite simply, the Roman Empire itself.
ii. Difference in science and technology
n practicality vs speculation(思索)
n For the Romans, their science and technology features practicality, for they are not only good at absorbing Greek science, but also good at applying what they learnt.
n For example, the Romans were extremely good at building things, roads, buildings, bridges, walls....anything they needed. And in the fields of medicine, metallurgy….
n The Greeks, however, are more concerned with the theoretical aspect. Arithmetic, plane and solid geometry, astronomy, harmonics, together with literary and physical education, constitute the Greek curriculum(课程). The five mathematical disciplines are usually studied without any practical interests.
3. Latin Literature: 40
I. Prose ★ ★ 
i. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106-43 B.C.)
西塞罗Marcus Tullius, 前 106-前43年, 古罗马政治家、雄辩家、著作家
n a member of the Roman senate.
n Noted for eloquent (or oratory) and fine writing style, which is described as Ciceronian;
n His legal and political speeches are models of Latin diction;
n He had an enormous influence on the development of European prose.
ii. Julius Caesar (102/100?—44 B.C.) ★ ★
凯撒(古罗马的将军,政治家,历史家,公元前100-44)
n He recorded what he did and saw in the various military campaigns he took part in in his Commentaries. These writings are models of succinct Latin, for he used language with economy and ferocity. For instance:
n “I came, I saw, I conquered.
n “The die is cast.”
II. Poetry: 43
i. Lucretius (93-50 B.C.)
卢克莱修:罗马的哲学家和诗人。他的De Rerum Natura ( 论量物的本性 ),是一首为了把人们从迷信和对不可知的恐惧中解放出来试图用科学词汇解释宇宙的长诗
Noted for his philosophical poem On the Nature of Things, which expounded the ideas of Epicurus the Greek atomist.
ii. Virgil’s Aeneid
n In wandering across the Mediterranean (they were said to be hounded by the enmity of Juno), Aeneas and the Trojan remnant. reached the north African city of Carthage, where they were hospitably received by Dido, the city's founder and queen.
n There ensued a love affair between Dido and Aeneas,
n which threatened to distract Aeneas from his destiny in Italy.
n Mercury was sent to order Aeneas to depart
n  Aeneas, forced to choose between love and duty, reluctantly sailed away.
n Dido(迦太基女王), mad with grief, committed suicide. 传说中的迦太基女王:迦太基的创建者和王后,与埃涅阿斯坠入情网,在被抛弃后自杀
n When Aeneas later encountered her shade on a trip to the underworld, she turned away from him, still refusing to forgive his desertion of her.
n →Virgil presents him as the exemplar of the Roman virtues of devotion to duty and reverence for the gods
4. Art: 47
I. Architecture(建筑学)
The Romans are great engineers. To gain some idea of their sophisticated technology, just look at some examples
n The Romans built fantastic bridges all over Europe, like this aqueduct (a bridge to carry water). This one had a path for walking across, one for riding a chariot across and a channel for getting water across!
n The Colosseum hosted large-scale spectacular games that included fights between animals, the killing of prisoners by animals and other excutions, naval battles, and combats between gladiators. It has been estimated that about 500,000 people died in the Colosseum games.
P.S.: Colosseum:罗马圆形大剧场(建于公元80年,耗时5年,至今大部分尚存)
n the gladiators games (the fight man to man ):
n  Roman favorite game
n The gladiators(古罗马公开表演的格斗者), were trained to become fighting machines. They competed one against the other with the same or different arms, trying to wound and kill each other. In case of defeat, the destiny of the loser depended on the public mood: if everybody waved the handkerchiefs, he had his life saved, if they turned the thumb down, he had to die in the arena.
n The athletes of these games were slaves, usually heroes of the masses; one of the gladiators revolts, that of Sparticus (73-71 b.C.) was one of the most terrible for Rome
 
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