Part Ⅰ Writing (30 minutes)
Part II Reading Comprehension (Skimming and Scanning、 (15 minutes)
Directions: In this part, you will have 15 minutes to go over the passage quickly and answer the questions on Answer Sheet 1.
For questions 1-7, mark
Y(for YES、 if the statement agrees with the information given in the passage;
N(for NO、 if the statement contradicts the information given in the passage;
NG(for NOT GIVEN、 if the information is not given in the passage.
For questions 8-10, complete the sentences with the information given in the passage. Our dreams combine verbal, visual and emotional stimuli into a sometimes broken, nonsensical but often entertaining story line. We can sometimes even solve problems in our sleep. Or can we? Many experts disagree on exactly what the purpose of our dreams might be. Are they strictly random brain impulses, or are our brains actually working through issues from our daily life while we sleep -- as a sort of coping mechanism? Should we even bother to interpret our dreams? Many say yes, that we have a great deal to learn from our dreams.
Why do we Dream?
For centuries, we've tried to figure out just why our brains play these nightly shows for us. Early civilizations thought dream worlds were real, physical worlds that they could enter only from their dream state. Researchers continue to toss around many theories about dreaming. Those theories essentially fall into two categories:
● The idea that dreams are only physiological stimulations
● The idea that dreams are psychologically necessary
Physiological theories are based on the idea that we dream in order to exercise various neural connections that some researchers believe affect certain types of learning. Psychological theories are based on the idea that dreaming allows us to sort through problems, events of the day or things that are requiring a lot of our attention. Some of these theorists think dreams might be prophetic. Many researchers and scientists also believe that perhaps it is a combination of the two theories.
Dreaming and the Brain
When we sleep, we go through five sleep stages. The first stage is a very light sleep from which it is easy to wake up. The second stage moves into a slightly deeper sleep, and stages three and four represent our deepest sleep. Our brain activity throughout these stages is gradually slowing down so that by deep sleep, we experience nothing but delta brain waves -- the slowest brain waves. About 90 minutes after we go to sleep and after the fourth sleep stage, we begin REM sleep.
Rapid eye movement (REM、 was discovered in 1953 by University of Chicago researchers Eugene Aserinsky, a graduate student in physiology, and Nathaniel Kleitman, Ph.D., chair of physiology. REM sleep is primarily characterized by movements of the eyes and is the fifth stage of sleep.
How to Improve Your Dream Recall
It is said that five minutes after the end of a dream, we have forgotten 50 percent of the dream's content. Ten minutes later, we've forgotten 90 percent of its content. Why is that? We don't forget our daily actions that quickly. The fact that they are so hard to remember makes their importance seem less.
There are many resources both on the Web and in print that will give you tips on how to improve your recall of dreams. Those who believe we have a lot to learn about ourselves from our dreams are big proponents of dream journals. Here are some steps you can take to increase your dream recall:
● When you go to bed, tell yourself you will remember your dreams.
● Set your alarm to go off every hour and half so you'll wake up around the times that you leave REM sleep -- when you're most likely to remember your dreams. (Or, drink a lot of water before you go to bed to ensure you have to wake up at least once in the middle of the night!、
● Keep a pad and pencil next to your bed.
● Try to wake up slowly to remain within the "mood" of your last dream.
Common Dream Themes and Their Interpretations
● Being naked in public
Most of us have had the dream at some point that we're at school, work or some social event, and we suddenly realize we forgot to put on clothes! Experts say this means:
◆ We're trying to hide something (and without clothes we have a hard time doing that、.
◆ We're not prepared for something, like a presentation or test (and now everyone is going to know -- we're exposed!、.
If we're naked but no one notices, then the interpretation is that whatever we're afraid of is unfounded. If we don't care that we're naked, the interpretation is that we're comfortable with who we are.
You're falling, falling, falling... and then you wake up. This is a very common dream and is said to symbolize insecurities and anxiety. Something in your life is essentially out of control and there is nothing you can do to stop it. Another interpretation is that you have a sense of failure about something. Maybe you're not doing well in school or at work and are afraid you're going to be fired or expelled. Again, you feel that you can't control the situation.
● Being chased
The ever-popular chase dream can be extremely frightening. What it usually symbolizes is that you're running away from your problems. What that problem is depends on who is chasing you. It may be a problem at work, or it may be something about yourself that you know is destructive. For example, you may be drinking too much, and your dream may be telling you that your drinking is becoming a real problem.
● Taking an exam (or forgetting that you have one、
This is another very common dream. You suddenly realize you are supposed to be taking an exam at that very moment. You might be running through the hallways and can't find the classroom. This type of dream can have several variations that have similar meanings. (Maybe your pen won't write, so you can't finish writing your answers.、 What experts say this may mean is that you're being scrutinized about something or feel you're being tested -- maybe you're facing a challenge you don't think you're up to. You don't feel prepared or able to hold up to the scrutiny. It may also mean there is something you've neglected that you know needs your attention.
Many flying dreams are the result of lucid dreaming (清醒梦、. Not all flying dreams are, however. Typically, dreaming that you are flying means you are on top of things. You are in control of the things that matter to you. Or, maybe you've just gained a new perspective on things. It may also mean you are strong willed and feel like no one and nothing can defeat you. If you are having problems maintaining your flight, someone or something may be standing in the way of you having control. If you are afraid while flying, you may have challenges that you don't feel up to.
● Running, but going nowhere
This theme can also be part of the chasing dream. You're trying to run, but either your legs won't move or you simply aren't going anywhere -- as if you were on a treadmill (踏车、. According to some, this dream means you have too much on your plate. You're trying to do too many things at once and can't catch up or ever get ahead.
1. This passage mainly discusses different theories about why we have dreams at night.
2. Early theories held that dreams were reflection of people’s real, physical worlds.
3. According to physiological theories, dreaming allows us to sort through problems or events of the day that require our attention.
4. REM occurs at the third and fourth stage during which we experience the deepest sleep.
5. The reason why dreams do not seem important is that they are very difficult to remember.
6. Trying to get recorded what you said or did in your dream can help increase your dream recall.
7. If a person dreams he is naked but is not noticed by others, it means what he is afraid of is groundless.
8. You are falling, falling, falling in your dream, which is said to symbolize ________.
9. Being chased in a dream usually means that you’re escaping from your _________.
10. One of the interpretations for flying dreams is that you are _______and nothing can defeat you.
Part Ⅳ Reading Comprehension(Reading in Depth、 (25 minutes)
Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks. You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of choices given in a word bank following the passage. Read the passage through carefully before making your choices. Each choice in the bank is identified by a letter. Please mark the corresponding letter for each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre. You may not use any of the words in the bank more than once.
Questions 47 to 56 are based on the following passage.
A department store’s inputs include the land upon which the building is located, the labor of the employees, (47) in the form of building, equipment and merchandise, and the management skills of the store managers. On a farm, the operation system is the transformation that occurs when a farmer’s (48) land, equipment, labor, etc.、 are converted into such outputs as corn, wheat or milk. The exact form of the conversion process (49) from industry to industry, but it is an (50) phenomenon that exists in every industry. Economists refer to this (51) of resources into goods and services as the production function. For all operation systems, the general goal is to create some kind of value-added outputs that are worth more to consumers than just the sum of the inputs. To the consumers, the resulting products (52) utility due to the form, the time, or the place of their availability from the conversion process.
However, the process is subject to random changes. Unplanned or uncontrollable influences may cause the actual output to differ from planned output. Random fluctuations can arise from external disruption (fire, floods or lightning, for example、 or from (53) problems inherent in the conversion process. Inherent variability of equipment, material imperfections, and human errors all affect output quality (54) . In fact, random variations are the rule rather than the exception in production processes; therefore, (55) variation becomes a major management task.
The function of the feedback is to provide (56) linkages. Without some feedback of information, management personnel cannot control operations because they don' t know the results of their directions.
A. offer B.capital C. medium D.difficult E. varies F. differently
G.proposal H. transformation I.beautifully J.economic K. reducing
L.internal M. inputs N. afford O. information
Directions: There are 2 passages in this section. Each passage is followed by some questions or unfinished statements. For each of them there are four choices marked A), B), C) and D). You should decide on the best choice and mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
Questions 57 to 61 are based on the following passage.
Most of the people who appear most often and most gloriously in the history books are great conquerors and generals and soldiers, whereas the people who really helped civilization forward are often never mentioned at all. We do not know who first set a broken leg, or launched a seaworthy boat, or calculated the length of the year, or manured（施肥）a field; but we know all about the killers and destroyers. People think a great deal of them, so much so that on all the highest pillars in the great cities of the world you will find the figure of a conqueror or a general or a soldier. And I think most people believe that the greatest countries are those that have beaten in battle the greatest number of other countries and ruled over them as conquerors. It is just possible they are, but they are not the most civilized.
Animals fight; so do savages (野蛮人); hence to be good at fighting is to be good in the way in which an animal or a savage is good, but it is not to be civilized. Even being good at getting other people to fight for you and telling them how to do it most efficiently --- this, after all, is what conquerors and generals have done --- is not being civilized. People fight to settle quarrels. Fighting means killing, and civilized peoples ought to be able to find some way of settling their disputes other than by seeing which side can kill off the greater number of the other side, and then saying that that side which has killed most has won. And it not only has won, but, because it has won, has been in the right. For that is what going to war means; it means saying that might is right.
That is what the story of mankind has on the whole been like. Even our own age has fought the two greatest wars in history, in which millions of people were killed or disabled. And while today it is true that people do not fight and kill each other in the streets --- while, that is to say, we have got to the stage of keeping the rules and behaving properly to each other in daily life --- nations and countries have not learnt to do this yet, and still behave like savages.
57 In the opening sentence the author indicates that ________.
A、most history books were written by conquerors, generals and soldiers.
B、those who truly helped civilization forward is rarely mentioned in history books.
C、history books focus more on conquerors than on those who helped civilization forward.
D、conquerors, generals and soldiers should not be mentioned in history books.
58 In the author’s opinion, the countries that ruled over a large number of other countries are ________.
A、certainly both the greatest and the most civilized
B、neither the most influential nor the most civilized.
C、possibly the most civilized but not the most powerful
D、likely the greatest in some sense but not the most civilized.
59 The meaning of “That is what going to war means; it means saying that might is right.”(Last sentence of Paragraph 2、 is that ________.
A、those who fight believe that the winner is right and the loser wrong.
B、only those who are powerful have the right to go to war.
C、those who are right should fight against those who are wrong.
D、in a war only those who are powerful will win.
60 In the third paragraph, what the author wants to convey to us is that ________.
A、World War I and World War II are different from previous wars.
B、our age is not much better than those of the past.
C、modern time is not so civilized compared with the past.
D、we have fought fewer wars but suffered heavier casualties.
61 This passage is most likely taken from an article entitled ________.
A、War and World Peace B、Creators of Civilization
C、Civilization and History D、Who Should Be Remembered
Questions 62 to 66 are based on the following passage.
The motor vehicle has killed and disabled more people in its brief history than any bomb or weapon ever invented. Much of the blood on the street flows essentially from uncivil behavior of drivers who refuse to respect the legal and moral rights of others. So the massacre on the road may be regarded as a social problem.
In fact, the enemies of society on wheels are rather harmless people or ordinary people acting carelessly, you might say. But it is a principle both of law and common morality that carelessness is no excuse when one's actions could bring death or damage to others. A minority of the killers go even beyond carelessness to total negligence.
Researchers have estimated that as many as 80 per cent of all automobile accidents can be attributed to the psychological condition of the driver. Emotional upsets can distort drivers' reactions, slow their judgment, and blind them to dangers that might otherwise be evident. The experts warn that it is vital for every driver to make a conscious effort to keep one's emotions under control.
Yet the irresponsibility that accounts for much of the problem is not confined to drivers. Street walkers regularly violate traffic regulations; they are at fault in most vehicle walker accidents. And many cyclists even believe that they are not subject to the basic rules of the road.
Significant legal advances have been made towards safer driving in the past few years. Safety standards for vehicle have been raised both at the point of manufacture and through periodic road-worthiness inspections. In addition, speed limits have been lowered. Due to these measures, the accident rate has decreased. But the accident experts still worry because there has been little or no improvement in the way drivers behave. The only real and lasting solution, say the experts, is to convince people that driving is a skilled task requiring constant care and concentration. Those who fail to do all these things pose a threat to those with whom they share the road.
62 The word “massacre” in line 3 paragraph one means _____
A、mass-killing. B、disaster. C、tragedy D、accident.
63 What is the author's main purpose in writing the passage?
A、To show that the motor vehicle is a very dangerous invention.
B、To promote understanding between careless drivers and street walkers.
C、To discuss traffic problems and propose possible solutions.
D、To warn drivers of the importance of safe driving.
64 According to the passage, traffic accidents may be regarded as a social problem because _____.
A、 autos have become most destructive to mankind
B、 people usually pay little attention to law and morality
C、 civilization brings much harm to people
D、 the lack of virtue is becoming more severe
65 Why does the author mention the psychological condition of the driver in Paragraph Three?
A、To give an example of the various reasons for road accidents.
B、To show how important it is for drivers to be emotionally healthy.
C、To show some of the inaccurate estimations by researchers.
D、To illustrate the hidden tensions in the course of driving.
66 Who are NOT mentioned as being responsible for the road accidents?
A、 Careless bicycle-riders.
B、 Mindless people walking in the street.
C、 Irresponsible drivers.
D、 Irresponsible manufactures of automobiles.
Part V Cloze(15 minutes)
Directions: There are 20 blanks in the following passage. For each blank there are four choices marked A、, B、, C、 and D、 on the right side of the paper. You should choose the ONE that best fits into the passage. Then mark the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre.
comToday the world's economy is going through two great changes, both bigger than an Asian financial crisis here or a European monetary union there.
The first change is that a lot of industrial_67_is moving from the United States, Western Europe and Japan to _ (68) _countries in Latin America, South-East Asia and Eastern Europe. In 1950, the United States alone _(69) _ for more than half of the world's economy output. In 1990, its _(70) _ was down to a quarter. By 1990, 40% of IBM's employees were non-Americans; Whirlpool, America's leading _(71) _ of domestic appliances, cut its American labor force _(72) _ 10%. Quite soon now, many big western companies will have more _(73)_ (and customers.in poor countries than in rich _(74) _ .
The second great change is _(75) _, in the rich countries of the OECD, the balance of economic activity is _(76) _ from manufacturing to _(77) _. In the United States and Britain, the _(78) _ of workers in manufacturing has _(79) _ since 1900 from around 40% to barely half that _(80) _ in Germany and Japan, which rebuilt so many _(81) _ after 1945, manufacturing's share of jobs is now below 30%. The effect of the _(82) is increased _(83) _ manufacturing moves from rich countries to the developing ones, _(84) _ cheap labor _(85) _ them a sharp advantage in many of the _(86) _ tasks required by mass production.
67 A、product B、production C、products D、productivity
68 A、other B、 small C、 capitalistic D、 developing
69 A、accounted B、 occupied C、 played D、 shared
70 A、output B、 development C、 share D、 economy
71 A、state B、consumer C、 representative D、 supplier
72 A、by B、at C、through D、 in
73 A、products B、 market C、employees D、changes
74 A、one B、ones C、 times D、 time
75 A、what B、ike C、that D、how
76 A、ranging B、varying C、 swinging D、 getting
77 A、producing B、 products C、 servicing D、services
78 A、proportion B、 number C、 quantity D、 group
79 A、changed B、gone C、 applied D、shrunk
80 A、Furthermore B、 Even C、 Therefore D、 Hence
81 A、armies B、 weapons C、 factories D、 countries
82 A、question B、 manufacturing C、shift D、 rebuilding
83 A、with B、 as C、given D、 if
84 A、while B、 whose C、who's D、 which
85 A、give B、 is giving C、gives D、 gave
86 A、repetitive B、various C、creative D、 enormous
Part Ⅵ Translation (5 minutes)
Directions: Complete the sentence on Answer Sheet 2 by translating into English the Chinese given in brackets.
87. __________ _（任何国家无论在什么情况下都不可以） have the right to use nuclear weapons.
88. It’s essential that _____________________(他把一切准备好) before the examination .
89. The population of America is not large _____________________ (与中国相比).
90. The beggar accepted the one-dollar note _____________________(甚至连一声谢谢都没说).
91. Life is full of risks _____________________(不论你是否喜欢)