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  The men and women of Anglo-Saxon England normally bore one name only. Distinguishing epithets were rarely added. These might be patronymic, descriptive or occupational. They were, however, hardly surnames. Heritable names gradually became general in the three centuries following the Norman Conquest in 1066. It was not until the 13th and 14th centuries that surnames became fixed, although for many years after that, the degree of stability in family names varied considerably in different parts of the country.? (来源:英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

  British surnames fall mainly into four broad categories: patronymic, occupational, descriptive and local. A few names, it is true, will remain puzzling: foreign names, perhaps, crudely translated, adapted or abbreviated; or artificial names . In fact, over fifty per cent of genuine British surnames derive from place names of different kinds, and so they belong to the last of our four main categories. Even such a name as Simpson may belong to this last group, and not to the first , had the family once had its home in the ancient village of that name. Otherwise, Simpson means "the son of Simon", as might be expected.?

  Hundreds of occupational surnames are at once familiar to us, or at least recognisable after a little thought: Archer, Carter, Fisher, Mason, Thatcher, Taylor, to name but a few. Hundreds of others are more obscure in their meanings an d testify to the amazing specialisation in medieval arts, crafts and functions. Such are "Day", (Old English for breadmaker) and "Walker" (a fuller whose job it was to clean and thicken newly made cloth).?

  All these vocational names carry with them a certain gravity and dignity, which descriptive names often lack. Some, it is true, like "Long", "Short" or "Little", are simple. They may be taken quite literally. Others require more thinking: their meanings are slightly different from the modem ones. "Black" and "White " implied dark and fair respectively. "Sharp" meant genuinely discerning, alert, acute rather than quick-witted or clever. Place-names have a lasting interest since there is hardly a town or village in all England that has not at some time given its name to a family. They may be picturesque, even poetical; or they may be pedestrian, even trivial. Among the commoner names which survive with relatively little change from old-English times are "Milton"(middle enclosure) and "Hilton"(enclosure on a hill).?

  70.  Surnames are said to be ___ in Anglo-Saxon England.?

  A. common    B. vocational    C. unusual   D. descriptive ?

  71.  We learn from the first paragraph ___ for many years after the 13th and 14th centuries.?

  A. family names became descriptive and occupational?

  B. people in some areas still had no surnames?

  C. some people kept changing their surnames?

  D. all family names became fixed in England ?

  72.  "Patronymic" in the second paragraph is closest in meaning to "formed from ___.?

  A. the name of one's father"   B. the family occupation"? C. one's family home"   D. one's family history" ?

  73.  Which of the following sentences is an opinion rather than a fact??

  A. hundreds of occupational names are at once familiar to us.?

  B. "Black" and "White" implied "dark" and "fair" respectively.?

  C. Vocational names carry with them a certain gravity and dignity.?

  D. Every place in England has given its name to a family. ?

 
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