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6.  First of all, it wasn’t easy for me to understand the teacher when she talked to the class. (P6)刚开始,当老师和全班学生说话的时候,她的话对我来说很难听懂。
(1)短语first of all意为“首先,第一”,在句中作状语,强调首要的事情是什么,不一定用于列举,常用于first of all..., then..., at last...,使说明的层次更清楚。
First of all, I must finish my work. 首先,我必须完成我的工作。
First of all, I want to say that thank you for coming.
首先,我想说的是感谢你们的到来。
7.  To begin with, she spoke too quickly, and I couldn’t understand every word. (P6)刚开始,她讲得太快,我不能每个词都听懂。
本句中的to begin with意为“首先,第一点(理由)”。
We can’t go. To begin with, it’s too cold. Besides, we’ve no money. 我们不能去。首先是天气太冷了;再者,我们没有钱了。
◎begin with意为“以……开始”,其后接动词时应用动词-ing形式。
The book begins with a story. 这本书是以一个故事开头。
The party began with dancing. 晚会是以舞蹈开头的。
8.  Later on, I realized that it doesn’t matter if you don’t understand every word. (P6)后来,我意识到即使不理解每个单词也没有关系。
later on是由later与on构成的固定词组,但在意思和用法上与later既有相同之处,也有区别的地方。
特别提示
later与later on的用法
◎later作副词用,意为“后来”,“以后”,往往以以前或现在的时间或事情为基准,因此,常用于一般过去时或一般将来时。
Later he learned how to repair television sets.后来他学会了修电视机。
The radio says the sun will come out later.广播说太阳过些时候就会出来。
◎later常和一个表示时间的名词连用,构成“时间段+later”结构。
He came back a week later.一星期后他回来了。
魔力纠错
两天后我再来拜访。
误:I shall call again two days later. (来源:英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)
正:I shall call again in two days.
魔力解析
“时间段+later”不可用于从现在算起的若干时间以后。说“从(现在起)……之后”,应该用“in+时间段”。
◎later on作副词短语使用,也是“后来”,“以后”的意思,有时可与later互换。
That happened later on/later.后来那件事发生了。
◎later on只可单独使用,不能用于“时间段+later on”结构。
9.  It helped a lot. (P6)它很有帮助。
在本句中a lot用作副词,表示“非常,相当”,等于very much。
Thanks a lot. = Thanks very much.多谢。
He is feeling a lot better today.他今天感觉好多了。
◎a lot还可作“经常,常常”解,相当于often。
They use the recorder a lot in English class.在英语课上,他们常用录音机。
◎a lot of=lots of,修饰可数名词或不可数名词,意为“许多”,相当于many或much。
There is a lot of(=lots of) homework to do.有许多作业要做。
魔力纠错
她在穿上没有花很多钱。
误:She doesn’t spend a lot of money on dresses.
正:She doesn’t spend much money on dresses.
10.  I think that doing lots of listening practice is one of the secrets of becoming a good language learner. (P6) 我认为做大量的听力练习是成为一个好的语言学习者的秘诀之一。
(1)该句是由that引导的宾语从句,当主句用一般现在时态时,从句可以用任意时态;当主句用过去时态时,从句则要用相应的过去时。
I hear that Mr Brown has been to Shanghai. 我听说布朗先生去过上海。
He said these answers were right. 他说这些答案是正确的。
(2)one of意为“(……中的)一个”,其后接名词的复数形式,如有形容词修饰名词时,形容词要用最高级。
Mr Wang is one of the most popular teachers in our school.
王老师是我们学校最受欢迎的老师之一。
11.  How do we deal with our problems? (P8)我们怎样处理我们的问题?
本句中的deal with意为“处理,解决”,相当于do with,其主语通常是人或物。
I have many problems to deal with. 我有许多问题要解决。
◎ deal with作“与……打交道”,“与……做买卖”解时,主语通常是人、公司、商店等。
My elder brother will deal with you later on. 我哥哥以后会来收拾你的。
特别提示
deal in有时也可以表示“与……做买卖”,但后面跟具体的商品。
This shop deals in computers. 这家商店做电脑买卖。
12.  Most of us have probably been angry with our friends, parents or teachers. (P8)我们中的大部分人可能都生过我们的朋友、父母或老师的气。
本句中的be angry with意为“对某人生气”,后面常跟人作宾语;当表示生气的原因时,可以加上for doing sth。
He was angry with me for not having done anything.
我什么也没有做,他为此很生气。
特别提示
be angry at表示“因某事生气”,后面接表示言行的名词、代词或v-ing形式或从句作宾语。
He was rather angry at missing the bus.他因没有赶上公共汽车而相当生气。
He was angry at what I said. 他对我所说的感到生气。
13.  Time goes by, and good friendships may be lost. (P8)时间流逝,良好的友谊可能也就随之逝去了。
(1)go by是不及物动词短语,意为“走过”,“(时间)消逝,流逝”。
Two weeks went by. 两周过去了。
(2)lost是lose的过去分词。lose意为“丢失,失去”时,语气较强,一般指失去不易找回。
 
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