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51.They are called virtual particles in order to distinguish them from real particleswhose lifetimes are not constrained in the same wayand which can be detected. (来源:英语博客 http://space.englishcn.com)

它们被称为“虚粒子”(virtual particle),以便与实粒子(real particle)区分开来,而实粒子则不会以这种方式受到制约,并且其存在可得以测定。

 

52. Other theorists propose that the Moon was ripped out of the Earth"s rocky mantle by the Earth"s collision with another large celestial body after much of the Earth"s iron fell to its core.

其他的理论家提出,在地球的大部分铁沉入到地核之后,由于地球与另一个庞大的天体发生碰撞,月亮便从地球那石质的地幔中撕裂开来而形成的。

 

53.Thuswhat in contrast to the Puritan colonies appears to Davis to be peculiarly Southern acquisitivenessa strong interest in politics and the lawand a tendency to cultivate metropolitan cultural modelswas not only more typically English than the cultural  patterns exhibited by Puritan Massachusetts and Connecticutbut also almost certainly characteristic of most other early modern British colonies from Barbados north to Rhode  Island and New Hampshire.

因此,那些与(北方)清教殖民地形成鲜明对比、并在戴维斯教授的心目中显得具有特殊南方色彩的特征——占有欲、对政治和法律的浓厚兴趣、以及培养大都市文化模式的倾向——不仅仅要比清教的马萨诸塞州和康乃涅克州所展现出来的文化模式更具有典型的英国色彩,并且几乎毫无疑问地构成了绝大多数其它早期近代英国殖民地的特征,从巴巴多斯北至罗得岛和新罕布什尔州。

 

54.A very specialized feeding adaptation in zooplankton is that of the tadpolelike appendicularian who lives in a walnut-sized or smaller balloon of mucus equipped with filters that capture and concentrate phytoplankton.

浮游动物体内一种极特殊的进食适应性变化是蝌蚪状的尾海鞘纲动物(appendicularian)的那种适应性变化,而尾海鞘纲动物则存活于核桃大小(或更小)的黏液球囊内,装备有过滤器,用以捕捉和集中浮游植物。

 

55.These historianshoweverhave analyzed less fully the development of specifically feminist ideas and activities during the same period.

但是,这些史学家还不曾充分地分析同一时期中那些具体的女权主义思想和活动的发展。

 

56.When the core of a giant star whose mass surpasses 1.4 times the present mass of our Sun M⊙)exhausts its nuclear fuelit is unable to support its own weight and collapses into a tiny neutron star.

当一颗质量超过我们的太阳目前质量(M☉)1.4倍的巨星的内核耗竭其核燃料时,它便无法支撑自身的重量,并收缩成为一颗小型中子星(neutron star)。

 

57.This is so even though the armed forces operate in an ethos of institutional change  oriented toward occupational equality and under the federal sanction of equal pay for equal equal work.

即使武装部队是在一种趋向于职业平等的体制变革的精神下并在联邦政府同工同酬的鼓励下运作的,情况亦是如此。

 

58.Not only are liver transplants never rejectedbut they even induce a state of donor-specific unresponsiveness in which subsequent transplants of other organssuch as skinfrom that  donor are accepted permanently.

但是,我们已经发现,在许多种老鼠之间,这些移植法的“常规”并没有被肝脏移植物所遵循。肝脏移植物非但从没遭到过排斥,甚至还诱发了一种供者特异性无应答状态(donor-specific unresponsiveness),在此状态中,随后来自那个供者其它器官的移植物,如皮肤,会永久地被接受。

 

59.While the new doctrine seems almost certainly correctthe one papyrus fragment raises the specter that another may be unearthedshowingfor instancethat it was a posthumous production of the Danaid tetralogy which bested Sophoclesand throwing the date once  more into utter confusion.

数据资料已被统计出来,或被重新统计出来,以便证明在文体学这方面,《乞援衰女》实际上确实在《波斯人》和《七雄攻忒拜》(后两者现在则变成了“原始”的剧作)之后以及在轴残片却唤起了一种幽灵似的疑虑,即另一块残片有可能再度被挖掘出来,并证明,比如说,《乞援衰女》是作者藉以击败索福克勒斯的《达那特四部曲》的一部死后出版之作,从而将创作年代再度置于极度的混乱之中.

 

60.The methods that a community devises to perpetuate itself come into being to preserve aspects of the cultural legacy that that community perceives as essential.

一个社会所创造出来藉以使其自身生生不息、恒久不衰的方法得以形成产生,以保存在这个社会看来具有本质意义的文化遗产的各个方面。

 

61.Because the potential hazards pollen grains are subject to as they are transported over long distances are enormouswindpollinated plants havein the view abovecompensated for the  ensuing loss of pollen through happenstance by virtue of producing an amount of pollen that is one to three orders of magnitude greater than the amount produced by species pollinated by insects.

由于花粉粒在其长距离的运输过程中所要面临的潜在危险是巨大的,按上述观点来看,由风授粉的植物补偿了通过偶发事件而伴随造成的花粉损失。其途径是,制造出大于昆虫授粉的植物种类所产生的花粉量的一至三个数量级的花粉量。

 

62.For examplethe spiral arrangement of scale-bract complexes on ovule-bearing pine coneswhere the female reproductive organs of conifers are locatedis important to the production of airflow patterns that spiral over the cone"s surfacesthereby passing airborne pollen from one scale to the next.

例如,带有胚珠的松球的鳞苞综合体的螺旋状安排,亦即松柏目植物雌性殖器官的所在位置,对于气流模式的形成与产生殊为重要,而这些气流模式在松球的表现盘旋上升,从而把在空气中飞行的花粉从一个鳞苞传播至下一个鳞苞。

 

63.It was not the change in office technologybut rather the separation of secretarial work,  previously seen as an apprenticeship for beginning managersfrom administrative work that in the 1880"s created a new class of "dead-end" jobsthenceforth considered "women"s work."

十九世纪八十年代,产生了新的一类“没前途”的职业,这并不是因为办公室技术发生了改变,而是由于秘书工作——在此之前被视作是初起步的经理们的一种习见训练——与行政工作的分离。自此以后,这类“没前途”的职业便被视作是“女人的工作。”

 

64.The increase in the numbers of married women employed outside the home in the twentieth  century had less to do with the mechanization of housework and an increase in leisure time for these women than it did with their own economic necessity and with high marriage rates that shrank the available pool of single women workerspreviouslyin many casesthe only women employers would hire.

二十世纪已婚妇女在家庭以外就业的人数不断增加,这与家务的机械化及这些妇女闲暇时间的增加并无多大联系,更多地是与妇女自身的经济需要和高婚姻率相关。高婚姻率致使所能雇佣的单身女工的总量缩减,而在此之前的许多情形中,单身女性则是雇主们所愿雇佣的唯一—一类妇女。

 

65,In order to understand the nature of the ecologist"s investigationwe may think of the density-dependent effects on growth parameters as the "signal" ecologists are trying to isolate andinterpretone that tends to make the population increase from relatively low values or decrease from relatively high oneswhile the density-independent effects act to produce "noise" in the population dynamics.

为了能理解生态学家们所从事的研究的性质,我们可以把那些作用于增长参数的密度依赖效应视作生态学家们力图将其分离并予以解释的“信号”,正是这一信号倾向于使种群从相对较低的数值递增,或从相对较高的数值递减;而与此同时,那些密度独立效应起到的作用则构成了种群动态变化中的“噪音”。

 

66.But the play"s complex view of Black self-esteem and human solidarity as compatible is no more "contradictory" than Du Bois" famouswell-considered ideal of ethnic self-awareness  coexisting with human unityor Fanon"s emphasis on an ideal internationalism that also accommodates national identities and roles.

但该剧有关黑人自尊可与人类团结相融合这一复杂观点,丝毫都不比杜波伊斯(Du Bois)的理想或法侬(Fanon)的强调来得更为“矛盾”:杜波伊斯提出的著名的、深思熟虑的理想是,民族的自觉可以和人类大同共存;法侬则对理想的国际主义进行了强调,而这一理想的国际主义同样也能兼容民族身份与角色。

 

67.In which of the following does the author of the passage reinforce his criticism of responses such as Isaacs" to Raisin in the Sun?题干圈套

 

68.Inheritors of some of the viewpoints of early twentieth-century Progressive historians such as Beard and Beckerthese recent historians have put forward arguments that deserve evaluation.

作为二十世纪早期“进步派”史学家(如BeardBecker)等人某些观点的继承者,这些近期的史学家所提出的观点值得我们予以评价。

 

69.Despite these vague categoriesone should not claim unequivocally that hostility between recognizable classes cannot be legitimately observed.

尽管存在这些模糊范畴,但我们不应该断然声称,在各个易于辨认出的阶层之间所存在的敌对态度就无法被合理地观察到。

 

70.Yet those who stress the achievement of a general consensus among the colonists cannot fully understand that consensus without understanding the conflicts that had to be overcome or repressed in order to reach it.

然而,有些史学家强调在殖民者之间曾出现过一种普遍的一致意见。这些史学家如果不认识到各种矛盾的存在,就无法充分地理解这种一致意见,而所有那些矛盾只有在被克服或压制之后才有可能获得那种一致意见。

 

71.It can be inferred from the passage that the author would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding socioeconomic class and support for the rebel and Loyalist causes during the American Revolutionary War?插入语多

 

72. Although it has been possible to infer from the goods and services actually produced what manufactures and servicing trades thought their customers wantedonly a study of relevant personal documents written by actual consumers will provide a precise picture of who wanted what.

尽管有可能从实际制造的商品和服务中可推知制造商和服务业认为他们的顾客所需要的是什么,但只有对由实际顾客撰写的相关的个人文件进行一番研究,方能提供一幅精确的图画,藉以说明“什么样的人”需要什么样的东西。

 

73.Such philosophical concerns as the mind-body problem ormore generallythe nature of  human knowledge they believeare basic human questions whose tentative philosophical solutions have served as the necessary foundations on which all other intellectual speculation has rested.

他们相信,诸如灵与肉的问题,或更普遍而言,人类知识的性质等此类哲学关注,均是一些基本的人类问题,其探索性的哲学答案已构成一个必要的基础,其它所有的智力思辩均赖以建立其上。

 

74.The idea of an autonomous discipline called "philosophy" distinct from and sitting in judgment on such pursuits as theology and science turns out on close examinationto be of quite recent origin.

细作审视,我们便不难发现,一种被称为“哲学”的独立学科——既有别于神学和科学诸般学科,并高高在上地对其予以评判——的思想,其渊源却是甚为近期的事。

 

75.But the recent discovery of detailed similarities in the skeletal structure of the flippers in all three groups undermines the attempt to explain away superficial resemblance as due to convergent  evolution-the independent development of similarities between unrelated groups in response to similar environmental pressures.

但是,最近在所有这三类动物身上,对鳍肢的骨骼结构所存在的细致共同点的发现足以削弱这样一种企图,即把表面上的近似作为趋同进化所致的结果来将其解释掉。而所谓的趋同进化(convergent evolution),是指在互不相关的生物群体之间,作为对类似的环境压力作出的反应,彼此独立的发展形成某些相同特征。

 

76.Human genes contain too little information even to specify which hemisphere of the brain  each of a human"s 10"" neurons should occupylet alone the hundreds of connections that each neuron makes.

人类因基所包含的信息是如此之少,以致于就连去具体规定人类1011的神经细胞中任意一个细胞应占据大脑的哪个半脑都无法做到,更不用提每个神经细胞所会形成的数百种连接。

 

77.These questions are political in the sense that the debate over them will inevitably be less an exploration of abstract matters in a spirit of disinterested inquiry than an academic power struggle in which the careers and professional fortunes of many women scholars-only now entering the academic profession in substantial numbers-will be at stakeand with them the chances for a distinctive contribution to humanistic understandinga contribution that might be an important influence against sexism in our society.

这些问题之所以带有政治性质,因为可避免地,围绕这些问题展开的急诊与其说是一种在客观冷静科研精神指导下对抽象问题的探索,倒不如说是一种学术上的权力斗争。在此斗争中,许多女学者中——只是在现在才开始以众多的人数进入学术界——的学术生涯和职业命运将处于存亡攸关的危急关头,与她们相伴随的是对人文理解作出一种独特贡献的机遇,这一贡献则很有可能成为消除我们社会中所存在的性别主义的一股重要影响。

 

78.In experimentsan injection of cytoplasm from dextral eggs changes the pattern of sinistral eggsbut an injection from sinistral eggs does not influence dextral eggs.

在实验中,用取自右旋卵子的细胞质进行的注射,可改变左旋卵子的模式;用取自左旋卵子的细胞质进行的注射却不能影响到右旋卵子。

 

79.Recently some scientists have concluded that meteorites found on Earth and long believed to have a Martian origin might actually have been blasted free of Mars"s gravity by the impact on  Mars of other meteorites.

最近,某些科学家得出结论认为,那些在地球上发现的并一直被相信源自火星的陨石(meteorite),实际上有可能是由于其它的陨石撞击火星而致使其被震离火星的重力作用范围。

 

80.Under the force of this viewit was perhaps inevitable that the art of rhetoric should pass from the status of being regarded as of questionable worth because although it might be both a source of pleasure and a means to urge people to right actionit might also be a means to distort truth and a source of misguided actionto the status of being wholly condemned.

在这种观点的力量作用下,一件或许是不可避免的事情发生了:修辞艺术竟然从被视和具有让人怀疑的价值这样一种地位(因为尽管它有可能既构成一种歪曲真理的手段和误导行为的来源)转变到彻底遭谴责的地位。

 

81.None of these translations to screen and stagehoweverdramatize the anarchy at the  conclusion of A Connecticut Yankeewhich ends with the violent overthrow of Morgan"s three-year-old progressive order and his return to the nineteenth centurywhere he apparently commits suicide after being labeled a lunatic for his incoherent babblings about drawbridges and battlements.

然则,在所有这些被搬上银幕和舞台的改编作品中,没有任何一部作品能生动地再现《康乃涅克州的美国佬》结尾处的无政府状态。而在原作结尾处所描述的情节是,摩根历时三年之久苦心经营的进步事业被暴力推翻,他又重返于十九世纪,在由于他的那些有关吊桥和城垛的语无伦次的唠叨而被列为疯子之后,显然自杀身亡。

 

82.Calculations of the density of alloys based on Bernal-type models of the alloys metal component agreed fairly well with the experimentally determined values from measurements on alloys consisting of a noble metal together with a metalloidsuch as alloys of palladium and siliconor alloys consisting of ironphosphorusand carbonalthough small discrepancies remained.

以伯纳尔所建立的旨在研究合金中金属成分的那类模型为基础,研究人员对合金密度进行了计算,这些计算相当程度上与某些合金测量中通过实验确定的数据趋于一致,尽管一些细小的差异依然存在。实验中测量的那类合金由一贵金属和一准金属构成,例如,钯和硅的合金,或由铁、磷、和碳组成的合金。

 

83.It is now established that the Milky Way is far more extended and of much greater mass than was hitherto thought.

现在,这已成为一个不争的事实:银河系要比迄今为止所想象的要来得远为浩瀚广阔,并具有远高得多的质量。

 

84.And Walzer advocates as the means of eliminating this tyranny and of restoring genuine equality "the abolition of the power of money outside its sphere"

沃尔泽倡议,作为消除这种专制暴政和恢复真正平等的手段,应“废除金钱在其范围之外的作用。”

 

85.Is it not tyrannicalin Pascal"s senseto insist that those who excel in "sensitivity" or "the ability to express compassion" merit equal wealth with those who excel in qualities such as  "the capacity for hard work"essential in producing wealth

如果坚持认为,那些擅长于“敏感”和“善于表达怜悯之心”的人,应获取与那些擅长于在物质财富创造过程中所不可或缺的品质(诸如“勤奋工作的能力”)的人同等的物质财富,这按帕斯卡尔的意思,难道就不也是专制暴政吗?

 

86.Yet Waizer"s argumenthowever deficientdoes point to one of the most serious weak-  nesses of capitalism-namelythat it brings to predominant positions in a society people whono matter how legitimately they have earned their material rewardsoften lack those other qualities that evoke affection or admiration.

然则,沃尔泽的论点,无论它不充分到何种地步,确实揭示了资本主义体制中最严重的一个弱点,即它将某一类人置于社会中的显赫地位置,这类人无论以怎样合法的方式获得了其物质报偿,却常常缺乏其它那些能唤起他人受戴和钦佩的品质。

 

87. The appreciation of traditional oral American Indian literature has been limitedhampered by poor translations and by the difficultyeven in the rare culturally sensitive and aesthetically  satisfying translationof completely conveying the original"s verse structuretoneand syntax.对美国印第安人传统口头文学的欣赏,一直被质量低劣的翻译所限制和妨碍,并且即使是那种不可多得的既体现着文化敏感性,又在美学上令人满意的译作,也难以完全传递出原作的诗体结构、语调和句法。

 

88.Mores which embodied each culture"s ideal principles for governing every citizen were developed in the belief that the foundation of a community lies in the cultivation of individual powers to be placed in service to the community.

“风俗习惯”,体现了每一文化制约每个公民的理想准则,它是在这种信仰中发展而来的,即一个社会的基础在于个人能力的培养,并将这些个人能力置于对社会的服务之中。

 

89.Only in the case of the February Revolution do we lack a useful description of participants  that might characterize it in the light of what social history has taught us about the process of revolutionary mobilization.

唯独在二月革命(the February Revolution)这一情形中,我们缺乏一种有用的有关参加者的描述,而这一描述则有可能按照社会历史有关革命动员过程所教给我们的内容来勾画出这场革命的性质。

 

90.Anthropologists and others are on much firmer ground when they attempt to describe the  cultural norms for a small homogeneous tribe or village than when they undertake the formidable task of discovering the norms that exist in a complex modern nation state composed of many disparate groups.

当人类学家和其他人试图去描述一个小规模的同一性质(homogeneous)部落或村落的文化标准时,他们处在一种要坚实得多的基础上。相对而言,当他们着手从事这样一个艰巨的任务,即去揭示存在于一个复杂的、由许多彼此间毫无联系的群体所构成的现代单一民族的独立国家(nation-state)时,他们就具备一个同样坚实的基础。

 

91.It has thus generally been by way of the emphasis on oral literary creativity that these Chicano writerswhose English language works are sometimes uninspireddeveloped the powerful and arresting language that characterized their Spanish-language works.

因此,一般而言,正是通过对口头文学创造性的强调,这些奇卡诺作家——其英语作品时常显得缺乏灵感——才得以发展一种强有力的和富于吸引力的语言,并以此构成了他们西班牙语作品的特征。

 

92.To measure them properlymonitoring equipment would have to be laid out on a grid at intervals of at most 50 kilometerswith sensors at each grid point lowered deep in the ocean and kept there for many months.

为了恰当地测量它们,监测设备必须被设置在一网络上,彼此的间距最多为五十公里,位于每个网点的感应器沉放至海洋深处,并在许多个月中一直固定在那里。

 

93.This declarationwhich was echoed in the text of the Fourteenth Amendmentwas designed primarily to counter the Supreme Court"s ruling in Dred Scott v. Sandford that Black people in the United States could be denied citizenship.

这一在第十四条修正案的文本中被复述的宣言,主要是旨在对抗最高法院在“Dred ScottSandford”一案中的判决,此判决裁定,在美国的黑人可被剥夺公民权。

 

94.The broad language of the amendment strongly suggests that its framers were proposing to write into the Constitution not a laundry list of specific civil rights but a principle of equal citizen-  ship that forbids organized society from treating any individual as a member of an inferior class.

第十四条修正案的宽泛笼统的语言强烈地暗示,其制定者所意欲载入宪法的不是一张具体民法的细目清单,而是一种平等公民权的原则,这一原则禁止有组织的社会将任何一个个人作为劣等阶层的成员来对待。

 

95.This doctrine has broadened the application of the Fourteenth Amendment to othernonracial forms of discriminationfor while some justices have refused to findany legislative  classification other than race to be constitutionally disfavoredmost have been receptive to arguments that at least some nonracial discriminations. sexual Discrimination in particular,  are "suspect" and deserve this heightened scrutiny by the courts.

所谓“怀疑分类”,意指那种在有可能被理解成以种族为基础,针对某一群体进行的歧视这一信条扩展了第十四条修正案的适用范围,使其同样也适用于其它的、非种族形式的歧视。因为虽然某些法官拒不将除种族以外的立法分类裁定为非法的,但绝大多数法官已经接受了这样一个论点,即至少某些非种族性质的歧视,尤其是性别歧视,是“值得怀疑的”,并理应接受法庭这种更高程度上的审视。

 

96.Only when a system possesses natural or artificial boundaries that associate the water within it with the hydrologic cycle may the entire system properly be termed hydrogeologic.

只有当某一地质系统拥有自然的或人工的界限,将该系统内的水与水文循环起来,这整个系统方能被恰当地称为与水文地质学相关。

 
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