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1.改变词类Conversion。英语一个词能充当的句子成分较少,充当不同成分时常常要改变词类。
Insulin is used in the treatment of diabetes.
This issue is of paramount importance.
Rationing by points is over and rationing by the purse is in.
Oceanography has been defined as ″The application of all sciences to the study of the sea″. 1990. 1? (来源:英语麦当劳-英语杂志 http://www.EnglishCN.com)

2. 选词用字Diction。
Before Hugo could protest? he and the others were led away. (抗议-分辩)
Put a teaspoonful of tea in the pot and then you just add the boiling water to it and let it stand. (稍等片刻再喝)
It's a crime you didn't finish school. (憾事)

3.词序调整Inversion。一个句子中词和分句的顺序,英汉两种语言往往不同。如表示时间和地点,英语常常是先小后大,而汉语是先大后小。
His address is 3612 Market Street? Philadelphia? PA 19001? USA.
Don't hesitate to come when you need help.
black and white TV? iron and steel company

4.省略Omission。
You cannot build a ship? a bridge or a house if you don't know how to make a design or how to read it.
It took him a long time to reach the bottom and to couch behind a little dwarf palm. 

5.增词Amplification。英语中没有量词,助词,翻译时应根据上下文的需要予以增加。有些英语的不及物动词必须增加宾语意思才完整。
I could knit when I was seven.
Without a sense of your fault? how can repentance and amendment be expected﹖ 如果
Walking past the Garden of Eden? Adam's son asked his father? ″Who owns that large estate﹖″
″That's where your mother and I used to live?″ replied Adam? ″before she ate us out of house and home.″

6.重复Repetition?。
Practically every river has an upper? a middle and a lower part. 上游,中游,下游
If an atom contains three protons? it must have three electrons to be electrically neutral.

7.正译反译法Negation?
The Organization has not? so far? justified the hopes which the people set on it. (辜负)
Suddenly he heard a sound behind him? and realized he was not alone in the garage. (还有别人)
If a patient at Beth Israel is not responding to treatment? it is not uncommon for his nurse to propose another approach to his doctor. 1993. 1?

8.分译法Division?。英语长句多,为了符合汉语表达习惯,可将英语长句拆成短句。
It was a real challenge that those who had learned from us now excelled us. 
It has been rightly stated that this situation is a threat to international security.
Because they tremble at the thought of being seen in public in clothes that are out of fashion? they are always taken advantage of by the designers and the big stores. 1993. 6?

9.常见短语和重要句型的翻译
1)It goes without saying that…不言而喻的是……
2)It is common knowledge that…众所周知的是……
3)It occurs to me that…我突然想起
4)It is not that...but that…并不是说……而是说
5? 某些含蓄否定的翻译 
Plants which refine crude ores are often located in countries other than those in which the crude ores are mined.  提炼矿石的工厂通常不是设在开采矿石的国家,而是设在其它国家。
6)more...than...与其说……不如说……
She is more like his mother than like his teacher.
7)no more...than...和……一样都不
There is no reason they should limit how much vitamin you take? any more than they can limit how much water you drink. 他们没有理由限制你服用多少维生素,就像他们不能限制你喝多少水一样。
8)not...all...? all is...not...并不是……都……
All that glitters is not gold.
Both of the books are not helpful. 
Everyone doesn't want to go to the concert.
9)cannot...too...无论……也不过分
We can't praise him too much.
10)much less? still less? to say nothing of? not to mention? let alone更不用说
He knows little of mathematics? and still less of chemistry.
In old China? there was hardly any machine-building industry? to say nothing of an electronic industry.
All they have to do is to press a button? and they can see plays? films? operas and shows of every kind? not to mention political discussions and the latest exciting football match.
11)so...that...如此……以至于
And home appliances will also become so smart that controlling and operating them will result in the breakout of a new psychological disorder-kitchen rage.  
12? not so much...as...与其说……不如说……

 
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